Resources on the Sustainable Development Goals
Dive into our resources that explore how the future of business aligns with the United Nations’ 17 goals for sustainable development.
Click on a goal to skip straight to the resources.
What are the SDGs?
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a set of 17 global goals agreed by the United Nations in 2015. The SDGs are a blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. Each goal has specific targets and indicators to measure progress. The SDGs are intended to be universal, meaning that they apply to all countries and all people, regardless of their level of economic development.
Feature: AI and the SDGs
AI can be used to support a wide range of activities, from identifying areas in need of assistance, to monitoring and evaluating progress, to finding new and innovative solutions to complex problems.
Goal 1: No poverty
End poverty in all its forms everywhere.
The COVID-19 pandemic has reversed the progress of poverty reduction in the past 25 years leading to an additional 75 – 95 million people living in extreme poverty in 2022. Many countries have introduced short-term social protection measures to help the poor and protect people’s health, jobs and income. If these measures continue, they will provide the needed assistance for the poor and help them move out of poverty.
- 1.1: By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day
- 1.2: By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions
- 1.3: Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable
- 1.4: By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance
- 1.5: By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters
- 1.a: Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions
- 1.b: Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions
Additional workers pushed into poverty due to the pandemic
657 – 676million
Number of people living in extreme poverty in 2022
Increase in the working poverty rate in 2020
Unemployment cash benefits during the pandemic in low-income countries
Goal 2: Zero hunger
End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.
Between 2014 and the onset of the pandemic, the number of people going hungry and experiencing food insecurity had been gradually rising. This has worsened due to COVID-19 and the war in Ukraine, which has disrupted food supply chains worldwide and created the biggest global food crisis since the Second World War. Malnutrition has led to serious health outcomes for a larger proportion of the world’s population.
- 2.1: By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round
- 2.2: By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons
- 2.3: By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment
- 2.4: By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality
- 2.5: By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed
- 2.a: Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries
- 2.b: Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round
- 2.c: Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility
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People worldwide lack regular access to adequate food
Percentage of countries affected by soaring food prices in 2020
1 in 10
People worldwide suffering from hunger
Children under the age of 5 suffering from stunting
Goal 3: Good health and well-being
Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on global health, disrupting essential services and exacerbating health inequality. Other areas of healthcare, such as maternal and child health, have also been impacted as well as efforts to combat infectious diseases like HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. Human beings are entitled to a healthy and productive life, and efforts should promote immunisation, preventative healthcare, and equal access.
- 3.1: By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births
- 3.2: By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births
- 3.3: By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases
- 3.4: By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being
- 3.5: Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol
- 3.6: By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents
- 3.7: By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes
- 3.8: Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all
- 3.9: By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination
- 3.a: Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate
- 3.b: Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non-communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all
- 3.c: Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States
- 3.d: Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks
People infected by COVID-19 worldwide
Countries that had essential health services disrupted by COVID-19
Children who missed basic vaccines in 2020
Increase in tuberculosis deaths in 2020 from 2019
Goal 4: Quality education
Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
Access to high quality education is important for building capabilities, equality, and economic mobility around the world. Education is also fundamental for individuals to live a happy and satisfying life. While education alone cannot solve economic problems caused by shortcomings in other policy areas, it is an essential part of a comprehensive approach to addressing these issues and requires well-supported and adequately funded educational institutions and systems.
- 4.1: By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes
- 4.2: By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education
- 4.3: By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university
- 4.4: By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship
- 4.5: By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations
- 4.6: By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy
- 4.7: By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development
- 4.a: Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all
- 4.b: By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries
- 4.c: By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States
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Primary schools globally that lack computers and internet access
Children missed more than half of in person learning during 2020 and 2021
Primary schools globally that lack basic sanitation and drinking water
Estimated number of learners who may never return to school
Goal 5: Gender equality
Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
Discrimination against women remains prevalent in laws, policies, and institutions. Violence against women and girls is widespread, with over a quarter of women worldwide experiencing physical and/or sexual violence by a husband or intimate partner at least once in their lifetime. Efforts must be strengthened to address these issues to ensure that gender equality is advanced. Achieving gender equality by empowering women and girls will build a better economy and better society for all.
- 5.1: End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere
- 5.2: Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation
- 5.3: Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation
- 5.4: Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate
- 5.5: Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life
- 5.6: Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences
- 5.a: Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws
- 5.b: Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women
- 5.c: Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels
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Women subjected to intimate partner violence at least once in their lifetime
Women’s share of total employment in 2019
Women’s share in national parliaments in 2022
Proportion of countries that lack minimum system to track gender-budget allocations
Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation
Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
Access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene is basic for human health and wellbeing, and billions of people will lack access to these basic services in 2030 unless progress quadruples. The demand for water is rising due to rapid population growth, urbanisation, and increasing water needs from agriculture, industry, and energy sectors. Decades of poor management, over extraction of groundwater, and contamination of freshwater supplies have exacerbated water stress.
- 6.1: By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
- 6.2: By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations
- 6.3: By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally
- 6.4: By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity
- 6.5: By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate
- 6.6: By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
- 6.a: By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies
- 6.b: Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management
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People live with unknown water quality due to lack of monitoring
Wetlands worldwide that have been destroyed in the last 300 years
People live in countries with high and critical levels of water stress
Estimated number of people who will lack basic hand hygiene facilities in 2030
Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy
Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.
Despite progress, there are still 733 million people globally living without access to electricity, and 2.4 billion cooking with harmful and polluting fuels. Although the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency have improved, rising global energy prices are increasing energy insecurity. Countries need to speed up the transition to renewable energy and increase investments in renewables and energy efficiency.
- 7.1: By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services
- 7.2: By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
- 7.3: By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
- 7.a: By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology
- 7.b: By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support
People still using inefficient and polluting cooking systems
Share of renewables in total final energy consumption in 2019
People worldwide without access to electricity in 2020
Increase in consumption of renewables from 2010 to 2019
Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth
Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
It is important that countries build inclusive growth by focusing on job creation, by investing in and developing sound, effective and efficient economic and social infrastructure as well as the need for workers to have access to education, skills, health care, social security and fundamental rights at work.
- 8.1: Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries
- 8.2: Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors
- 8.3: Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services
- 8.4: Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production, with developed countries taking the lead
- 8.5: By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value
- 8.6: By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training
- 8.7: Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms
- 8.8: Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment
- 8.9: By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
- 8.10: Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all
- 8.a: Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries
- 8.b: By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization
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Children engaged in child labour worldwide in 2020
Growth in output per worker in 2021
Global unemployment rate in 2021
Annual growth rate of global real GDP per capita in 2021
Goal 9: Industry, innovation and infrastructure
Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation notes the mutually reinforcing relationship between social and industrial development. Industrialisation and innovation have the potential to promote, directly and indirectly, a variety of social objectives such as employment creation, poverty eradication, gender equality, labour standards, and greater access to education and healthcare.
- 9.1: Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all
- 9.2: Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries
- 9.3: Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets
- 9.4: By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities
- 9.5: Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending
- 9.a: Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States
- 9.b: Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities
- 9.c: Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020
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Manufacturing jobs negatively impacted by the COVID-19 crisis
Decrease in airline passengers in 2021 from 2019
1 in 3
Small manufacturers benefiting from a loan or line of credit
World population who have access to a mobile broadband network
Goal 10: Reduced inequalities
Reduce inequality within and among countries.
The COVID-19 crisis has exacerbated global income inequality, partly reversing the decline of the previous two decades. Weak recoveries in emerging markets and developing economies are expected to raise between-country inequality. Globally, the absolute number of refugees in 2021 was the highest on record. The war in Ukraine is creating one of the largest refugee crises of modern times. Countries need to work together to address global inequality.
- 10.1: By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average
- 10.2: By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status
- 10.3: Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard
- 10.4: Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality
- 10.5: Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations
- 10.6: Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions
- 10.7: Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies
- 10.a: Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements
- 10.b: Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes
- 10.c: By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent
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People have experienced discrimination on at least one of the grounds prohibited under international human rights law
Migrants died on migratory routes worldwide in 2021
Increase in refugees outside of their country of origin between 2015 and 2021
Global average cost of sending $200 USD in 2021, down from 9.3% in 2011
Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities
Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
More than half of the world’s population live in urban settings. Cities are hubs for ideas, commerce, culture, science, productivity, social, human and economic development. Urban planning, transport systems, water, sanitation, waste management, disaster risk reduction, access to information, education and capacity-building are all relevant issues to sustainable urban development.
- 11.1: By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums
- 11.2: By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons
- 11.3: By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries
- 11.4: Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage
- 11.5: By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations
- 11.6: By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management
- 11.7: By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities
- 11.a: Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning
- 11.b: By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels
- 11.c: Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials
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World urban population breathing polluted air
People worldwide who live in slums
Municipal solid waste worldwide that is managed in controlled facilities
World population with convenient access to public transport
Goal 12: Responsible consumption and production
Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.
Developing countries bear a large part of the climate, biodiversity and pollution impacts of resource-intensive production processes, without reaping their benefits. This situation has been made worse by the impacts of the pandemic. As part of sustainable global pandemic recovery strategies, the implementation of sustainable consumption and production will maximise the socioeconomic benefits of resource use while minimising the impacts.
- 12.1: Implement the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries
- 12.2: By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources
- 12.3: By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses
- 12.4: By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment
- 12.5: By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse
- 12.6: Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle
- 12.7: Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities
- 12.8: By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature
- 12.a: Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production
- 12.b: Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
- 12.c: Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communitiesIndicators
Global increase in reliance on natural resources in 2019 from 2000
Food lost worldwide after harvesting but before reaching retail markets
Large companies worldwide that published sustainability reports in 2021
Government subsidies and support worldwide for fossil fuels
Goal 13: Climate action
Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.
In order to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, scientists recommend that by 2030 global emissions should be cut by 4 percent compared with 2010 levels. According to current national commitments, however, global emissions are set to increase by almost 14 percent during the rest of the decade. Climate change is an urgent economic, environmental, and moral challenge for the world to address.
- 13.1: Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
- 13.2: Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
- 13.3: Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning
- 13.a: Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible
- 13.b: Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities
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Increase in global energy-related CO2 emissions in 2021
Estimated increase in medium to large scale disasters from 2015 to 2030
Shortfall in climate finance yearly commitment by developed countries in 2019
Estimated number of people to be displaced by droughts by 2030
Goal 14: Life below water
Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.
Ocean ecosystems form the basis for global economies, local livelihoods, food security, nutrition, and climate adaptation and mitigation. As highlighted in the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report, harnessing the potential of the ocean by developing sustainable blue economies can build prosperity and improve the lives of all, including the most disenfranchised and marginalised communities.
- 14.1: By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution
- 14.2: By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans
- 14.3: Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels
- 14.4: By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics
- 14.5: By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information
- 14.6: By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation
- 14.7: By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism
- 14.a: Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries
- 14.b: Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets
- 14.c: Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of “The future we want”
Metric tons of plastic that entered oceans in 2021
Coral reefs worldwide destroyed between 2009 and 2018
Global fish stocks overfished in 2019
Marine key biodiversity areas worldwide that are safeguarded for conservation
Goal 15: Life on land
Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.
Ongoing issues like global deforestation, land and ecosystem damage, and loss of biodiversity present significant challenges for sustainable development. While work is being done to manage forests and resources sustainably, it’s crucial that measures to safeguard, rejuvenate, and sustainably utilise forests and biodiversity are put into action quickly.
- 15.1: By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements
- 15.2: By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally
- 15.3: By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world
- 15.4: By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development
- 15.5: Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species
- 15.6: Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed
- 15.7: Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products
- 15.8: By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species
- 15.9: By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts
- 15.a: Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems
- 15.b: Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation
- 15.c: Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities
Human progress is no excuse to destroy nature. A push to make ‘ecocide’ a global crime must recognise this fundamental truth
The push for a new environmental crime has attracted high-profile backers including Emmanuel Macron, Pope Francis and Greta Thunberg. But we must get the details right.
Species at risk of extinction over the coming decades
Global deforestation due to agricultural expansion
Hectares of forest destroyed each year worldwide
Countries that have adopted legislation on prevention or control of invasive species
Goal 16: Peace, justice and strong institutions
Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.
Building strong, transparent and inclusive institutions can reduce crime, corruption, and expand social freedoms. Making progress on global peace and human rights can help reduce the prevalence of exploitation, including human trafficking, incarceration rates, and violence against children.
- 16.1: Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere
- 16.2: End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children
- 16.3: Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all
- 16.4: By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime
- 16.5: Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms
- 16.6: Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels
- 16.7: Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels
- 16.8: Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance
- 16.9: By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration
- 16.10: Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements
- 16.a: Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime
- 16.b: Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development
People globally who live in conflict-affected countries
1 in 6
Businesses that have received bribe requests from public officials
Decrease in global homicide rate between 2015 and 2020
People forcibly displaced worldwide
Goal 17: Partnership for the Goals
Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development.
Achieving the SDGs will require building multi-stakeholder partnerships and strengthening capacity and capabilities across sectors. Revitalising the Partnership will bring organisations from civil society, business, and government together to maximise SDG impact.
- 17.1: Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection
- 17.2: Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries
- 17.3: Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources
- 17.4: Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress
- 17.5: Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries
- 17.6: Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism
- 17.7: Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed
- 17.8: Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology
- 17.9: Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the Sustainable Development Goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation
- 17.10: Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda
- 17.11: Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020
- 17.12: Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access
- 17.13: Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence
- 17.14: Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development
- 17.15: Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development
- 17.16: Enhance the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in all countries, in particular developing countries
- 17.17: Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships
- 17.18: By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts
- 17.19: By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries
Prior to COVID-19, there were concerns about achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals by 2030, a worry that has been clearly exacerbated by the pandemic.
GDP generated by government revenue on average in 130 countries
Countries and territories that have implemented national statistical plans
Worldwide weighted tariff average
People worldwide with access to the internet
How we’re contributing
The University of Sydney Business School has been a signatory to the United Nations Global Compact, Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), since 2016. The School has committed to ensuring that the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will systematically transform the narrative of business and management education beyond shareholder value maximisation.